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Journal of the Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation 2012;12(5):185-192.
Published online October 31, 2012.
산불통계로 본 우리나라의 산불특성 연구
이명욱, 이시영, 이종호
Study of the Characteristics of Forest Fire Based on Statistics of Forest Fire in Korea
Myung-Woog Lee, Si-Young Lee, Jong Ho Lee
Abstract
Forest fires occurred in Korea during past 50 years showed a lot of periodic changes according to the environmental changes. Average occurrences and the damaged area by the forest fires numbered 451 times and 3,760ha a year, respectively. The damaged amount of trees and values were largely increased by the expansion of aged trees growing area along with 1st and 2nd Essential Plan for Forest and by the large-scaled forest fires occurred in 90s and 2000s. The damages were sharply increased since 90s. The number of occurrences and damaged areas according to the region and the control division showed some variant results, but the numbers related to Kyungbuk and Kangwon region noticeably large in compared to the other regions. For Kangwon region, the damaged areas were larger in spite of the occurrences because of the large-scaled forest fires in 90s and 2000s. The statistics represents that carelessness by mountain-goers was the top cause of the origin of fire. The number was 30% in 60s and 70s, but was increased to 50% after 80s. The most frequent month of forest fire had been April, however the tendency showed that increasing the frequency in March and November but decreasing in April during 80s. 15% of the total of forest fire had occurred on Sunday, but the forest fire rate sharply increased on Friday and Saturday after the introduction of five-day workweek since 2000s. For hourly base, the forest fire occurred around 14:00~18:00(2~6PM) of 50%, and around noon(11:00~13:00) of 35%. However, the occurrence of forest fire in the afternoon were decresed steadily, and the forest fire which occurred noon, morning, and night were relatively increased. The forest fire rate of night time was represented the highest among them.
Key Words: Forest fires; Statistics; Number; Damaged area; Cause; Frequent
요지
지난 50년간 우리나라의 산불은 사회적인 여건과 산림여건 그리고 산림정책, 제도 그 외 시대적인 기상변화에 따라 산불의 발생건수와 피해면적 등이 다양하게 변화했고, 연도별로 평균 451건의 산불이 발생했고 3,760 ha의 피해를 입었다. 또한, 1990년대와 2000년대에는 1, 2차 산림기본계획사업의 성공으로 산림내 고령급의 산림면적율이 증가하여 대형산불이 발생했으며, 특히 90년대 이후 산불은 급격히 증가하였다. 지역별로 보면 경북은 산불발생 건수가, 강원도는 피해면적이 가장 컸으며 강원도의 피해면적이 컸던 이유는 90, 2000년대의 대형산불 때문인 것으로 나타났다. 산불발생 원인은 입산자실화가 가장 많았는데 그 비율을 보면 60, 70년대의 30%였던 것이 80년대에는 50%로 증가하였다. 월별로는 4월에 가장 많이 발생은 하였으나, 3월, 11월에도 증가 추세에 있다. 요일별로는 일요일에 가장 많이 발생하였으나, 2000년대 주5일제 시행으로 금요일과 토요일에도 급격한 증가를 보였다. 시간대별로는 오후 2시에서 6시 사이에 50%, 11시와 오후 1시 사이에 35%였으나, 특히 시간대별 산불발생률에서 오후시간대의 산불발생율은 지속적으로 감소하는 반면에 정오, 야간, 오전시간대의 산불발생율은 지속적으로 증가하고 있으며 특히, 야간산불의 발생율 증가폭이 가장 큰 것으로 나타나고 있어 향후 야간산불에 대한 산불방지대책 마련도 필요할 것으로 판단된다.
핵심용어: 산불; 통계; 건수; 피해면적; 원인; 빈도


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