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J. Korean Soc. Hazard Mitig. > Volume 18(7); 2018 > Article
환경방재
Journal of the Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation 2018;18(7):655-663.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.9798/KOSHAM.2018.18.7.655    Published online December 31, 2018.
할로겐계 난연제 함유 폐기물의 열적방법에 의한 분해 특성평가
권은혜1, 윤영삼2, 전태완3, 이영기4, 배지수5
1정회원, 국립환경과학원 폐자원에너지연구과 연구원
2국립환경과학원 폐자원에너지연구과 연구관
3국립환경과학원 폐자원에너지연구과 과장
4국립환경과학원 자원순환연구부 부장
5정회원, 국립환경과학원 폐자원에너지연구과 연구원
Study on Thermal Treatment of Chlorinated Flame Retardant in Waste Containing Halogen Flame Retardant
Eun-Hye Kwon1, Young-Sam Yoon2, Tae-Wan Jeon3, Young-Ki Lee4, Ji-Su Bae5
1Member, Researcher, In Waste-to-Energy Research Division, National Institute of Environmental Research
2Senior Researcher, In Waste-to-Energy Research Division, National Institute of Environmental Research
3Director, National Institute of Environmental Research
4Director General, Environment Resources Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research
5Member, Researcher, In Waste-to-Energy Research Division, National Institute of Environmental Research
Corresponding author:  Ji-Su Bae, Tel: +82-32-560-7532, Fax: +82-32-568-1658, 
Email: jisu7532@korea.kr
Received: 10 September 2018   • Revised: 11 September 2018   • Accepted: 22 October 2018
Abstract
Halogen flame retardants are substances that block combustion by adding chemicals that have flame-retardant properties. Among them, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) etc. are used in chlorine-based flame retardants. SCCPs were listed in the Stockholm Convention as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in 2017. POPs are harmful substances that do not decompose in the natural environment but accumulate in plant and animal tissues through the food chain of the ecosystem and have a fatal influence. In this study, we investigate whether waste containing flame retardants becomes environmentally stable after thermal treatment using a lab-scale reactor. The target samples consisted of a cell phone case made of cloth and leather, a flame-retardant rubber sheet, polyurethane foam, a car seat, and a cell phone case made of silicone. We produced a lab-scale reactor. The incineration temperatures used were 850 °C and 1,100 °C. No SCCPs, TCEP, TDPP, or TDCP were detected in the exhaust gas after incineration. Thus, decomposition was assumed to be sufficient owing to incineration. After analyzing five kinds of exhaust gases, the concentration of O2 was found to be high, but the concentration of CO was reduced. It is assumed that complete combustion is difficult owing to the small size of the furnace due to the nature of the lab-scale reactor. As a result, no halogen flame retardant substance was detected in the exhaust gas coming from the lab-scale reactor. However, considering the occurrence of dioxins and unintentional POPs, operation at more than 1,100 °C is considered possible.
Key Words: Flame Retardant, Lab-scale Incinerator, SCCP
요지
할로겐 난연제는 난연 효과를 갖는 화학물을 첨가함으로써 연소를 차단하는 물질이다. 그 중 염소계 난연제에서는 SCCP, TCEP 등 있다. 이 중에 SCCPs는 스톡홀름 협약 POPs 물질에 2017년 등재되었다. POPs 물질은 자연환경에서 분해되지 않고 생태계의 먹이사슬을 통해 동식물 체내에 축적되어 치명적인 영향을 미치는 유해물질이다. 본 연구에서는 난연제를 함유한 폐기물이 실험실 규모(Lab-Scale, 1 kg/hr) 반응기를 이용하여 열적처리 시 환경적으로 안정적인 처리가 되는지 연구하고자 한다. 대상 시료는 천⋅가죽 휴대폰케이스, 난연고무시트, 폴리우레탄폼, 카시트, 실리콘 휴대폰 케이스, 농약 액상과 고상으로 하였다. 실험실 규모 반응기를 제작하였으며, 소각 온도는 850 °C, 1,100 °C로 시행하였다. 소각 후 배출가스 중 SCCPs, TCEP, TEPP, TDCP 물질은 검출되지 않음으로 보아, 소각으로 인해 분해가 충분히 된 것으로 판단된다. 배출가스 5종 분석 결과, O2 농도가 높게 나타났으나 CO 발생량 농도도 높게 나타났다. 이는 반응기 특성상 연소로의 크기가 작기 때문에 완전 연소가 어려운 것으로 판단된다. 그러나 다이옥신 및 비의도적 잔류유기오염물질의 발생을 고려하여 1,100 °C이상에서 운전하는 것이 안전하다고 판단된다.
핵심용어: 난연제, 실험실 규모 반응기, SCCP


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